Suzuki Hayabusa Bikes

The Suzuki GSX1300R Hayabusa is a sports motorcycle made by Suzuki since 1999. It immediately won acclaim as the world’s fastest production motorcycle, with a top speed of 303 to 312 km/h (188 to 194 mph).

In 1999, fears of a European regulatory backlash or import ban[6][7][8][9] led to an informal agreement between the Japanese and European manufacturers to govern the top speed of their motorcycles at an arbitrary limit starting in late 2000.[10] The media-reported value for the speed agreement in miles per hour was consistently 186 mph, while in kilometers per hour it varied from 299 to 303 km/h, which is typical given unit conversion rounding errors. This figure may also be affected by a number of external factors,[11] as can the power and torque values.[12]

The conditions under which this limitation was adopted led to the 1999 and 2000[2][3] Hayabusa’s title remaining, at least technically, unassailable, since no subsequent model could go faster without being tampered with sans early 2000 models.[13] After the much anticipated[14][15][16] Kawasaki Ninja ZX-12R of 2000 fell 6 km/h (4 mph) short of claiming the title, the Hayabusa secured its place as the fastest standard production bike of the 20th century.[17][18][19] This gives the unrestricted 1999[2][3] models even more cachet with collectors.[20]

Besides its speed, the Hayabusa has been lauded by many reviewers for its all-round performance, in that it does not drastically compromise other qualities like handling, comfort, reliability, noise, fuel economy or price in pursuit of a single function.[5][21][22] Jay Koblenz of Motorcycle Consumer News commented, “If you think the ability of a motorcycle to approach 190 mph or reach the quarter-mile in under 10 seconds is at best frivolous and at worst offensive, this still remains a motorcycle worthy of just consideration. The Hayabusa is Speed in all its glory. But Speed is not all the Hayabusa is.”[21]

Hayabusa bikes

First generation (1999–2007)
A modern sport motorcycle with enclosed black and gray bodywork leaning on its sidestand on smooth paving stones in front of a white wall
1999 Hayabusa
Also called GSX-1300R-X (1999), GSX-1300R-Y (2000), GSX-1300R-K1–K7 (2001–2007)
Engine 1,299 cc (79.3 cu in), 4-stroke inline-four, liquid-cooled, DOHC, 16-valve, Keihin/Denso fuel Injection, wet sump
Bore / stroke 81.0 mm × 63.0 mm (3.19 in × 2.48 in)
Compression ratio 11:1
Top speed 1999-2000 303–312 km/h (188–194 mph)[2][3][23]
2001–2007 299 km/h (186 mph)[4][5] See performance and measurements
Power 129 kW (173 hp) (claimed)
113.0–121.3 kW (151.5–162.6 hp) (rear wheel) @ 9,500–9,750 rpm, See performance and measurements
Torque 126.6–135.0 N⋅m (93.4–99.6 lb⋅ft) (rear wheel)@ 6,750–7,000 rpm, See performance and


Transmission 6-speed constant-mesh sequential manual, #532 chain drive
Suspension Front Inverted telescopic fork, fully adjustable spring preload, 14-way adjustable rebound damping and 13-way adjustable compression damping
Rear Link-type, gas/oil damped, fully adjustable spring preload, 22-way adjustable compression & rebound damping
Brakes Front 6-pot Tokico calipers on 320 mm stainless steel discs
Rear Single hydraulic disc
Tires Bridgestone Battlax BT56 Front 120/70-ZR-17, Rear 190/50-ZR-17

Rake, trail 24.2°, 97 mm (3.8 in)
Wheelbase 1,485 mm (58.5 in)
Dimensions L: 2,140 mm (84 in)
W: 740 mm (29 in)
H: 1,155 mm (45.5 in)
Seat height 805 mm (31.7 in)
Weight See performance and measurements 215–242 kg (474–534 lb) (dry)
250–255.3 kg (551–563 lb) (wet)
Fuel capacity 21 L (4.6 imp gal; 5.5 US gal)
(California 19 L (4.2 imp gal; 5.0 US gal))
Fuel consumption 1999 6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg‑imp (37 mpg‑US),[24]
6.11 L/100 km; 46.2 mpg‑imp (38.5 mpg‑US)[21]
2005 7.4 L/100 km; 38 mpg‑imp (32 mpg‑US)[24]
When first shown to the press in 1999, the first Hayabusas made a profound impression.[5] No previous motorcycle has broken the production model top speed record by such a margin, 16 to 23 km/h (10 to 14 mph), depending on which measured speeds the source was relying on for the CBR1100XX and the GSX-1300R.[4][21]

Hayabusa (隼) is Japanese for “peregrine falcon”, a bird that often serves as a metaphor for speed due to its vertical hunting dive, or stoop, speed of 290 to 325 km/h (180 to 202 mph), the fastest of any bird.[25][26] In particular, the choice of name was made because the peregrine falcon preys on blackbirds,[27] which reflected the intent of the original Hayabusa to unseat the Honda CBR1100XX Super Blackbird as the world’s fastest production motorcycle.[28][29][30] Eventually, the Hayabusa managed to surpass the Super Blackbird by at least a full 16 km/h (10 mph).[4][31]

The first generation had a 1,299 cc (79.3 cu in) liquid-cooled, inline-4 engine with sixteen valves driven by dual-overhead camshafts. This configuration, technologically unremarkable for that time, delivered a record-setting claimed 129 kW (173 bhp) at the crankshaft by virtue of the largest displacement ever in a sport bike, and a ram air system that forced cool, pressurized air into the cylinders at speed.[4][21] Combined with sophisticated aerodynamics, this powerful engine pushed the Hayabusa’s top speed above the Honda CBR1100XX Blackbird by a significant leap, contrasting with the incremental gains that preceded the Suzuki hyper sport entry. The 1997 carbureted CBR1100XX had previously only inched past the previous top speed record holder, the Kawasaki Ninja ZX-11 of 1990.[5]

The Hayabusa’s abundance of power at any engine speed made the Hayabusa easier to ride by giving the rider a greater choice of gear selection for a given speed and stunning acceleration.[21]

The ram air ducts at the front of the drooping, rounded nose squeezed the frontal area away from the headlight, and this, along with the need for a narrow frontal area, necessitated a stacked headlight and high beam behind a single lens. Moreover, the need to reduce the extreme drag encountered at high speeds determined the Hayabusa’s entire bulbous, and much-criticized, bodywork design. Koblenz remarked, “non-traditional styling generates the main controversy of the Hayabusa.”[21] When viewed through the eyes of those who judged its beauty on the basis of its functionality, or given a little time to get used to it, the bike’s looks did find admirers.[21][32] The striking two-tone brown/silver paint scheme was similarly loved by some and hated by others but was successful if the intent of an all-new, flagship product is to make a bold statement.[21] So while it was called ugly by some in the press,[15][20][33] this aerodynamic shape was key to the Hayabusa’s ability to reach record-setting speeds.[4]

The side of the bodywork of a sport motorcycle with the legend Hayabusa superimposed on a Japanese character 隼.
Fairing decal of the Japanese character 隼, peregrine falcon
The speedometer and tachometer of a motorcycle with the triple clamp in the foreground. The tachometer goes to 11,000 and the speedometer to 180 mph

Hayabusa cockpit

Reflecting in 2009 on the initial design, the creator of the Hayabusa’s look, Suzuki’s Koji Yoshirua, said that the intent in 1999 was, “to create a somewhat grotesque design and create a strong initial impact… The mission was to create a total new styling that will not be out of date within few years, and a styling that will be the ‘Face’ of Suzuki.” Yoshirua also said that the goal was not to achieve the status of the fastest production motorcycle, which in early stages was slated to be only 900 to 1,100 cc (55 to 67 cu in), but that, “as a consequence of, pursuing the best handling, acceleration, safety, power, riding ability, original styling, etc., for the good of the customers, it became the ‘Fastest production motorcycle’ … By doing this, once the model was out in the market and the performance of it have been proven, I thought that people will start to show interest to the weird design, and then the design would be caked in peoples mind.”[34]

The engine used a gear-driven counterbalancer to reduce vibration to the point that the engine could be solidly mounted to the frame, for the purpose of increasing chassis rigidity. Employing a conventional twin beam frame, fully adjustable upside down forks, using specially developed Bridgestone tires, and being relatively light at 215 kg (473 lb) dry, the Hayabusa’s handling was considered excellent for a machine of this class.[4] One reviewer, Koblenz, noted a hesitation perhaps related to poor low-rpm mapping at low speeds, noticeable as a “pause and slight lurch” when rolling on and back off the throttle.[21]

Top speed limited by agreement

Main article: List of fastest production motorcycles § Gentlemen’s agreement to end competition
With rumors and then pre-release announcements of much greater power in Kawasaki’s Ninja ZX-12R in 2000, clearly attempting to unseat Suzuki and regain lucrative bragging rights, the speed war appeared to be escalating. There were growing fears of carnage and mayhem from motorcycles getting outrageously faster every year, and there was talk of regulating hyper sport motorcycles, or banning their import to Europe.[28][7][9][14]

The response was a so-called gentlemen’s agreement between the Japanese and European manufacturers to electronically limit the speed of their motorcycles to 300 km/h (186 mph).[4][35] The informal agreement went fully into effect for the 2001 model year.[2][3] So for 2001[2][3] models, and those since, the question of which bike was fastest could only be answered by tampering with the speed limiting system, meaning that it was no longer a contest between stock, production motorcycles, absolving the manufacturer of blame and letting those not quite as fast avoid losing face.[13] Both Kawasaki and Suzuki would claim, at least technically, to have the world’s fastest production motorcycle.[citation needed]

Other developments

After the inclusion of the speed limiting system in 2001,[2][3] the Hayabusa remained substantially the same through the 2007 model year. An exception was a response to the problem of the aluminum rear subframe on 1999 and 2000 models breaking when the bike may have been overloaded with a passenger and luggage, and/or stressed by an aftermarket exhaust modification, so 2001 and later Hayabusas had a steel instead of aluminum rear subframe, adding 10 lb (4.5 kg) to the 1999 and 2000 models’ approximately 250 kg (550 lb) wet weight.

Second generation (2008–2020)
A white motorcycle with fully enclosed bodywork standing upright on a mirrored top platform in a large indoor hall with a crowd of people in the background
Also called GSX-1300R-K8 (2008), -K9 (2009)
Engine 1,340 cc (82 cu in), 4-stroke inline-four, liquid-cooled, DOHC, 16-valve, Keihin/Denso fuel Injection, wet sump
Bore / stroke 81.0 mm × 65.0 mm (3.19 in × 2.56 in)
Compression ratio 12.5:1
Top speed 299 km/h (186 mph)[40]
Power 147 kW (197 hp)41
172.2 hp (128.4 kW) (rear wheel)@ 10100 rpm[37][40]
Torque 138.7 N⋅m (102.3 lb⋅ft),41
132.6 N⋅m (97.8 lb⋅ft) @ 7600 rpm[37][40](rear wheel)

Transmission 6-speed constant-mesh sequential manual, slipper clutch, #530 chain drive
Suspension Front Inverted telescopic, coil spring, fully adjustable spring preload, adjustable rebound damping and adjustable compression damping
Rear Link-type, gas/oil damped, fully adjustable spring preload, adjustable compression & rebound damping
Brakes Front 4-pot Tokico radial mount calipers on 310 mm x 5.5 mm disc
Rear Single hydraulic disc
Tires Bridgestone Battlax BT015 Front 120/70-ZR-17, Rear 190/50-ZR-17
Wheelbase 1,485 mm (58.5 in)
Dimensions L: 2,195 mm (86.4 in)
W: 740 mm (29 in)
H: 1,170 mm (46 in)
Seat height 805 mm (31.7 in)
Weight See performance and measurements 250 kg (550 lb) (dry)
264.0–268.5 kg (582–592 lb) (wet)
Fuel capacity 21 L (4.6 imp gal; 5.5 US gal)
(California 20 L (4.4 imp gal; 5.3 US gal))
Fuel consumption 7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg‑imp (33 mpg‑US)[24]
Suzuki lightly revised the GSX1300R for the 2008 model year, with a minor restyling of the bodywork, and fine-tuning of the engine’s head, pistons and exhaust. Though the engine changes were relatively limited, they still yielded a large horsepower increase, and brought the bike into compliance with new noise and emissions requirements.[25][42]


In 2004, market researchers from the US and Japan began working to identify which elements of the Hayabusa design had attracted so many buyers, discovering that, in spite of having its looks sometimes disparaged in print, customers were much enamored with the old Hayabusa. A redesign meant to strengthen the bike’s appearance without departing much from the original found approval with dealers and focus groups. Underneath the skin, Suzuki decided to save considerable development cost by keeping major portions of the frame and engine unchanged.[22] This was because engineers had determined greater power was possible without a significant redesign of the old engine, even faced with the need to comply with more stringent noise and air pollution rules.[43] The target was to produce more than 190 bhp (142 kW) at the crankshaft,[25] and they delivered 194 hp (145 kW), an 11 or 12 percent increase over the previous output.[41][42][44] When the new Hayabusa was released, independent tests bore this out, with 172.2 bhp (128.4 kW) @ 10,100 rpm measured at the rear wheel.[37]

Suzuki’s Koji Yoshiura designed the look of the new Hayabusa. He had previously styled the first generation Hayabusa, as well as the Suzuki Bandit 400, RF600R, TL1000S and the SV650. For research, Yoshiura traveled around the United States to bike nights and clubs for a first-hand look at the styling aesthetic of the Hayabusa custom scene and was inspired as much by the look and build of the Hayabusa rider as their custom bikes. While the second generation is very close to the first in overall shape and is largely dictated by wind tunnel tests, the raised lines and curves are meant to suggest a muscular build. Said Yoshiura, “I wanted to create a masculine form that complements a rider’s muscular structure with hints of developed bicep, forearm, and calves.”[45]

Technical revisions

Engine changes consisted of an increase in stroke by 2 mm, enlarging displacement to 1,340 cc (82 cu in). The compression ratio was boosted from 11:1 to 12.5:1 and the cylinder head was made more compact and was given lighter titanium valves, saving 14.1 g (0.50 oz) and 11.7 g (0.41 oz) on each intake and exhaust valve, respectively. The valves were driven by a chain with a new hydraulic tensioner. The pistons were made lighter by 1.4 g (0.049 oz)[43] and used ion-coated rings and shot peened connecting rods.[25] The crankcase breather system had reed valves added to control pressure waves in the intake airbox, a way of avoiding power loss.[43]

Fuel injectors from the GSX-R1000 were used, with smaller 44 mm (2 in) throttle bodies, called the Suzuki Dual Throttle Valve (SDTV) system. It has three selectable options of power delivery for a range of touring to wide open high performance.[42] The exhaust system was overhauled, using a 4-2-1-2 system, meaning four exhaust outlets merging into two pipes, and then joining into a single pipe before splitting into two enlarged, quieter mufflers, which added a few pounds of weight compared to the first generation Hayabusa. The exhaust also included a catalytic converter and an oxygen sensor in order to meet Euro 3 emissions requirements.[25]

The suspension was upgraded with a 43 mm Kayaba inverted fork with sliders having a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. The rear shock is also a Kayaba, and the overall suspension is firmer than the previous model. The swingarm is similar in design to the old one but was strengthened. The front and rear remain fully adjustable. The transmission was given a heavier-duty, slipper clutch. The final drive ratio was slightly lower, and gears 5-6 were spaced farther apart, and gear ratios 1-2 moved closer together.[25]

Ergonomic and cosmetic changes for the 2008 model include a higher windscreen, and interlocking gauge faces with a digital speedometer, as well as a new gear indicator and adjustable shift light. The fairing fasteners were hidden to uncomplicate custom paint work. The twin-spar aluminum frame was carried over from the previous version, and wheelbase, rake/trail, and seat height were the same, while overall length grew by two inches, and the taller windscreen added about ½ inch.[22] Weight was saved by omitting the centerstand.[25]

Technical improvements in the chassis include Tokico radial brake calipers, allowing smaller discs and therefore lower unsprung weight, translating into superior handling. Increased front braking power[41] necessitated a sturdier lower triple clamp. The rear brake caliper was moved to the top of the disc, giving a cleaner visual appearance. New 17 inch wheels were designed, using Bridgestone BT-015 radials taken almost directly from the GSX-R1000.[25]

Other changes were a steering damper with a reservoir and dual cooling fans with a larger, curved radiator. Because of increased vibration from the longer stroke, the fuel tank was put on floating mounts. All told, the changes for 2008 resulted in a dry weight of 490 lb (222 kg), 5 lb (2 kg) heavier than the prior generation.[25]

Other developments

Suzuki has dropped the GSX1300R designation in some countries and simply called the motorcycle the Hayabusa.

In October 2009, the company celebrated the tenth anniversary of the Hayabusa in Santa Pod raceway where more than 500 owners of Hayabusas converged. Many events were organized and prizes were distributed to people who visited the event.[46]

There were no changes through the 2011 model year except for new colors.[47]

Alongside the second generation Hayabusa, Suzuki developed the new B-King, a naked bike in the streetfighter mold, using the same engine but with a different intake and exhaust.[25][48]

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